1. Before they are fully vaccinated and complete their series, puppies should never touch the ground in heavily trafficked areas. They should not meet outside dogs with unknown vaccination statuses. This means no pet stores, dog parks, dog heavy environments, etc. At the veterinarian, carry the puppy to and from the exam room without allowing ground contact in common areas.
2. Livestock, poultry, etc carry diseases and parasites that can easily transfer to dogs - especially to puppies with immature immune systems. Some common examples of zoonotic diseases include hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, salmonella, scabies, mites, and lepto.
3. Your puppy might be vaccinated, but until it completes its vaccination series and has developed its immune system, it is still vulnerable to deadly viruses like Parvo, Distemper, Lepto, etc. Please avoid direct or indirect contact with other animals and environments until vaccinations are complete.
4. Parasites, viruses, bacteria, worms, insects, etc can easily be transferred from direct contact with the infected animal and from indirect contact with contaminated surfaces. People can easily carry contaminates on their clothing or shoes and then transfer it onto other surfaces. Puppies have underdeveloped immune systems and are especially vulnerable to diseases. If you are in contact with contaminated surfaces, wash your hands and disinfect clothing/shoes before interacting with your puppy. We use chlorhexidine spray, but disinfecting bleach, isopropyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, vinegar, Lysol, and Clorox also work well. Do not mix these chemicals without consulting mixing compatibility.
5. Do not over-vaccinate young puppies. Too much is just as harmful as too little. Unless there are active risks, it is best to give the basic puppy vaccinations covering Parvo, Distemper, Adenoviruses, and Parainfluenza. Once the puppy completes the basic vaccination series, vaccinations for coronavirus, leptospirosis, Lyme, etc. can be given if there is sufficient risk for exposure to these viruses. Vaccinations for lepto, corona, Lyme, etc. should be given separately and ideally spaced out from other vaccinations like Rabies. Certain vaccinations carry a greater risk of side effects and are tougher on the animal than others. Research and talk to your vet before making an informed decision regarding your dog's treatment. Excessive vaccinations do not make your dog healthier and increase the risk for adverse reactions.
If you need more information, please let me know or consult with your vet. Advocate for your puppy for their safety and health!